Counselors vs Therapists vs Psychologists: What’s the Difference?

Navigating the mental health field can feel like a linguistic maze with terms such as 'counselor,' 'therapist,' 'psychotherapist' and 'psychologist.' These professions often overlap, causing confusion. 

In this article, we’ll outline how they differ in terms of:

  • Scope of practice
  • Intervention methods
  • Education

Scope of Practice


  • Individual counselling. Counselors work with individuals to address a wide range of personal and emotional challenges, such as relationship issues, stress management, grief, and personal growth.
  • Career counseling. Some counselors specialize in helping clients make career-related decisions, explore job opportunities, and develop job-search skills.
  • Crisis intervention. Counselors may provide support during crises, including situations involving domestic violence or substance abuse.


  • Individual and group therapy. Therapists offer one-on-one therapy sessions as well as group therapy to help clients explore their emotions, thoughts, and behaviours.
  • Couples and family therapy. Therapists work with couples and families to address relationship issues, communication problems, and conflicts.
  • Specialized modalities. Therapists often have expertise in specific therapeutic modalities, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT).


  • Assessment and diagnosis. Psychologists are trained to assess and diagnose various mental health conditions using standardized assessment tools and clinical interviews.
  • Evidence-based treatment. They provide evidence-based therapeutic interventions, including cognitive-behavioural therapy, exposure therapy, and other empirically supported treatments.
  • Research and consultation. Psychologists may conduct research, consult with organizations, and develop psychological interventions based on scientific findings.


Intervention Methods


Counselors typically employ a range of therapeutic approaches, depending on their training and specializations. Common approaches include:

  • Person-centered therapy. Person-centered therapy, focusing on empathy and client-centered techniques, is a popular approach for counselors.
  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Counselors often use CBT to help clients identify and change unhelpful thought patterns and behaviours.
  • Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT). Counselors may use SFBT for goal-oriented, short-term interventions.


Therapists come from diverse backgrounds and may specialize in specific therapeutic modalities. Common approaches include:

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Many therapists use CBT to address various mental health issues.
  • Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT). DBT is particularly helpful for people with emotion regulation difficulties and self-destructive behaviours. It combines elements of CBT with mindfulness and acceptance strategies.
  • Family systems therapy. Therapists use family systems therapy to examine and address the dynamics, relationships, and communication patterns within family units or relationships.


Psychologists receive extensive training in a variety of therapeutic approaches. Common approaches include:

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). Psychologists often use CBT for a wide range of mental health issues.
  • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy. Some psychologists integrate psychodynamic techniques into their practice.
  • EMDR (eye movement desensitization and reprocessing). Psychologists trained in trauma therapy often use EMDR to treat trauma-related disorders.



As you can see, therapeutic professions often exhibit overlap in their work. This occurs because they share common goals of assisting individuals in improving their mental wellbeing.

Professionals from these fields frequently integrate various therapeutic approaches into their practice, adapting to the unique needs of their clients.

For example, cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is widely employed by all these professionals to address issues such as anxiety and depression.




  • US. Counselors typically hold a master's degree in counseling or related fields and need to obtain state licensure or certification.
  • UK. In the UK, counselors often have a diploma or master's degree in counseling, psychotherapy, or a related field, and they can seek accreditation from professional bodies.


  • US. Therapists in the US typically have a master's degree in psychology, counseling, social work, or related fields and must be licensed or certified.
  • UK. In the UK, therapists typically hold a diploma or master's degree in psychotherapy, counseling, or related disciplines, and they can seek accreditation from professional organizations.


  • US. Psychologists in the US typically hold a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or Psy.D.) in psychology and must be licensed by state boards after meeting strict requirements.
  • UK. In the UK, psychologists typically hold a doctoral degree and must be chartered with the British Psychological Society (BPS) and registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC).

Psychologists often have the highest level of education in this trio. They may have opted to pursue a Ph.D. in counseling psychology or a similar field. This training allows them to conduct research, administer psychological tests, and provide advanced therapeutic interventions. 


Therapists vs Psychotherapists: What’s The Difference?

The terms "therapist" and "psychotherapist" are often used interchangeably, and the distinction between them can vary depending on the region and professional regulations. However, there are some general differences in the way these terms are sometimes used.

For example, the term "therapist" is a broader, more inclusive term that can encompass a wide range of professionals who provide various forms of therapeutic interventions, including mental health counseling, psychotherapy, and other types of therapy.

Therapists can include counselors, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and other professionals who offer emotional and psychological support.

On the other hand, "psychotherapist" is a more specific term used to describe professionals who typically specialize in providing in-depth, insight-oriented therapy designed to explore deeper emotional and psychological issues.

Psychotherapists often use psychoanalytic or psychodynamic approaches, but they can also incorporate a wide range of therapeutic modalities into their practice.

These distinctions aren’t always strict, and the use of these terms can vary by region and individual practice. In some cases, a therapist may also refer to themselves as a psychotherapist to emphasize their focus on in-depth therapy, while others may simply use "therapist" as a more general term for their practice.


How Do I Know Which Professional is Right for Me?

You might choose a counselor if…

You’re experiencing mild to moderate mental health concerns, relationship issues, life transitions, stress, or career or school-related challenges.

You might choose a therapist if…

You’re experiencing anxiety, depression, C-PTSD, grief, or relationship difficulties. Therapists often offer shorter-term and solution-focused therapy.

You might choose a psychotherapist if…

You’re interested in long-term insight-oriented therapy and exploration of unconscious processes. It may be beneficial for those with complex or deep-seated emotional issues.

You might choose a psychologist if…

You have a severe or complex mental health condition, you’re interested in psychological assessments and diagnoses, and/or specialized treatment for a wide range of issues.



Seeking support for your mental health with so many different titles to consider can be confusing.

There is significant overlap in the roles and skill sets of these professionals, and their specific qualifications and expertise can vary widely.

It’s important to note that the biggest indicator of good outcomes in therapy is the relationship between the therapist and the client – this matters more than the intervention method or years of experience.

In addition, research shows that self-help materials are often enough for people to overcome mild to moderate mental health difficulties without professional support.

If you’re interested in a self-guided program that includes tools from CBT and DBT, be sure to check out The Mental Wellbeing Toolkit.

The Mental Wellbeing Toolkit


About Rebecca

Rebecca is the founder of The Wellness Society and author of two fluff-free books, The Framework and Understanding and Healing Trauma.

She's passionate about creating concise and compassionate mental health and wellbeing tools that address the root causes of distress.

Read more about her views on our About page.