Can Philosophy Be Used in Therapy?

Philosophy is a multifaceted field of inquiry that explores fundamental questions surrounding the human experience, the nature of reality, knowledge, and ethics.

It’s characterized by its emphasis on critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, and the exploration of abstract and complex ideas.

Therapy can draw from various areas of philosophy to address a wide range of existential, ethical, and personal concerns. Some of the areas of philosophy that are often touched upon in therapy include existentialism, stoicism, ethics, moral philosophy and eastern philosophy.


Existentialist philosophy explores themes such as meaning, freedom, choice, responsibility, and authenticity. Existentialist ideas are frequently integrated into therapy to help people confront existential concerns and make meaningful life choices.


Rooted in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, Stoicism emphasizes virtues like wisdom, courage, justice, and self-discipline as a means to achieve inner peace and resilience in the face of life's challenges.


Ethical philosophy plays a significant role in therapy, as it helps individuals navigate moral dilemmas, ethical decision-making, and questions of right and wrong. Therapists may draw on various ethical theories to explore clients' values and ethical concerns.

Moral Philosophy

A closely related field of study to ethics is moral philosophy, which delves into questions of morality and virtue. Therapists can use moral philosophy to help clients explore their values, ethical dilemmas, and moral decision-making.

Eastern Philosophy

Concepts from Eastern philosophies, such as Buddhism and Taoism, are increasingly integrated into therapy to explore mindfulness, meditation, and holistic approaches to mental health and wellbeing.

Why Integrate Philosophy Into Therapy?

While clinical mental health counseling graduate programs usually focus on psychological theories, integrating philosophy can add another dimension to the therapeutic process.

Philosophical exploration in therapy can lead to deeper self-awareness, personal growth, and the development of a more robust framework for understanding and addressing life's challenges.

The blend of psychology and philosophy helps clients challenge their assumptions and find ways to live meaningful lives while still maintaining healthy boundaries.

5 Ways Philosophy Can Transform Your Therapy Practice

1. Decoding Life's Meaning Through Existentialism

Existentialism is a branch of philosophy that directly deals with the search for life's meaning. Incorporating existential themes in your therapy practice can help guide clients through existential crises, assisting them as they grapple with feelings of emptiness, isolation, or anxiety about mortality.

By prompting clients to confront these profound questions head-on, you enable them to decipher their authentic purpose and craft meaningful narratives for their own lives.

Jean-Paul Sartre is a prominent existentialist philosopher offering several insights that can be incorporated into therapy.

2. Deepening Understanding of Self and Others

Existentialist philosophy also places a strong emphasis on self-exploration and understanding, encouraging us to confront fundamental questions about our existence and purpose in life.

Engaging with these philosophical questions can lead individuals, including therapists, to gain a better understanding of themselves.

This quality is essential for therapists, as it enhances empathy towards client’s experiences as well as helping them deal with countertransference, which involves projecting their own emotions and experiences onto clients. By exploring their own existential anxieties and dilemmas, therapists can gain insight into how these may impact their reactions to clients.

3. Cultivating Resilience Through Stoicism

Therapists can draw on Stoic principles to help clients develop emotional resilience, manage stress, and navigate adversity.

As in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), Stoicism encourages us to examine and reframe our thoughts to achieve emotional resilience.

By exploring Stoic ideas, people can learn to differentiate between what is within their control and what’s not, fostering a sense of inner peace and a more balanced approach to life's ups and downs.

4. Enhancing Critical Thinking Abilities

A key feature of philosophy is its emphasis on rigorous thought practices and deliberately analyzing various aspects of human life. As a therapist, sharpening your critical thinking through philosophical inquiries can elevate your analytical skills.

It can help in discerning patterns in behaviour or thoughts, and making informed decisions regarding the course of treatment.

Thinkers like René Descartes and Immanuel Kant have made significant contributions to the development of critical thinking methodologies. In addition, philosophers such as Aristotle and his virtue ethics, as well as utilitarian thinkers like John Stuart Mill, have contributed to discussions on ethical decision-making and human behaviour.

5. Provides an Ethical Guideline

An area where philosophy melds seamlessly with therapy is ethics.

Your counseling practice invariably encounters situations requiring sound ethical judgment. Be it respecting client-therapist boundaries, maintaining confidentiality, or handling conflicts of interest, philosophy holds fundamental principles that can guide ethical decision-making.

It allows you to explore ethical dilemmas from various angles and evaluate the best possible actions to take. Thus, having a comprehensive philosophical understanding of ethics helps to uphold the highest standards of integrity and professionalism in your therapy practice.

5 Ways to Integrate Philosophy Into Your Practice

  1. Consider formal training or courses in philosophical counseling or existential therapy. These programs provide structured education in using philosophical principles in therapy.
  2. Familiarize yourself with key philosophical concepts, theories, and schools of thought. The book Philosophy For Life gives an overview of how philosophy integrates with mental health and wellbeing.
  3. Recommend philosophy books or videos as client homework. The School of Life has a comprehensive YouTube channel covering various areas of philosophy. Be mindful that recommending these to clients who aren’t inclined towards philosophy may not be productive and could lead to disengagement, so it’s important to gauge interest first.
  4. Find a mentor or supervisor who has experience in incorporating philosophy into therapy. They can offer guidance, share their expertise, and provide valuable insights.
  5. Connect with other therapists or counselors who incorporate philosophy into their practice. Exchange ideas, share experiences, and build a network of like-minded professionals.


The journey of blending philosophy with therapy might seem daunting initially, but remember the vast potential it holds to transform your practice – and yourself as an individual.

We hope this article has inspired you to take the first steps into the extensive world where philosophy meets therapy.

Remember that not all clients are going to be interested in philosophical discussions, so it's important to adapt your approach to the individual needs and goals of each client.

By incorporating philosophy into your practice thoughtfully and responsibly, you can provide a unique and enriching therapeutic experience for those who are open to exploring philosophical dimensions of their lives.

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About Rebecca

Rebecca is the founder of The Wellness Society and author of two fluff-free books, The Framework and Understanding and Healing Trauma.

She's passionate about creating concise and compassionate mental health and wellbeing tools that address the root causes of distress.

Read more about her views on our About page.